Noun Clauses/Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

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Noun Clauses/Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

Post  MiStA Fouzi on Tue Mar 11, 2008 5:01 pm


Noun Clauses/Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

Tense Harmony or Sequencing
(except for a few exceptions*, the following changes are made when reporting quoted speech)




Quoted speech
Later reporting

present tense verb

simple past

present continuous

past continuous

present perfect
simple past
past perfect


past perfect

simple future (will)

would

future (be going to)

was/were going to

modals:
can
may (possibility)
may (permission)
will
might
must
have to
should
ought to
shall
shall


could
might
could
would
might
had to
had to
should
ought to
would (future)
should (ask for advice)

imperative

infinitive

yes/no question

if + noun clause


Note
:

  • If the reporting verb (the main verb of the sentences, e.g., said, is in the past, the verb in the noun clause will usually be in a past form.


  • If the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the noun clause verb is not changed.




She says, "I wash my hair every day."

She says she washes her hair every day.

She has said, "I wash my hair every day."

She has said that she washes her hair every day.

She will say, "I wash my hair every day."

She will say that she washes her hair every day.


*Exceptions:

  • If the reported sentence deals with a fact or general truth, the present tense is (can be) retained. She said that the moon causes the tides.


  • If the speaker reports something immediately or soon after it was said, the noun clause verb often remains as spoken.
    A: What did the conductor say?
    B: He said that the next stop is Northgate.
  • If will is the modal in the reported utterance and expresses future time, and if the situation described in the quote still holds true at the time of the indirect report, the will may not be changed to would even though the reporting verb is in the past tense:
    Mr. Arden said that a volcanic eruption will occur next year.




Reported Speech

Changes in time and place words





now
today
tomorrow
yesterday
next month
next year
last month
last year
in two days weeks)
five days ago
five weeks ago
here

then, at that time
that day
the following day, the next day, a day later
the previous day, the day before
the following month, the next month, a month later
the following year, the next, year, a year later
the month before, the previous month, the preceding month
the year before, the previous year, the preceding year
two days from then, two weeks from then
five days before, five days earlier
five weeks before, five weeks earlier
there

MiStA Fouzi

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Join date : 2008-02-18
Age : 27
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