what is brain drain ?
Brain drain is one of the most well-known economic phenomena of the 20th Century. It affects both developing and developed countries. However with the advent of globalisation and emergence of new economies, its effects have been changing. Directly, it results into economic losses, however indirectly it leads to loss of human capital and intelligentsia. Economically developed countries have successfully attracted skilled personnel to their countries.
Brain drain is not a recent phenomenon – it has been witnessed throughout the past few decades. It primarily involves the migration of the highly skilled workers from a developing or an underdeveloped country to developing countries in search of better recognition and reward for their skills. It is a known fact that developed countries have aggressively tried to attract the brightest of the lot from developing countries by providing professional, monetary incentives, and a better standard of living. This has perceived to have a negative effect on the economy and development of the parent country. The effect of Brain Drain has been far-fetching and has been felt throughout the world, however it has been more pronounced in many areas, India being one of them. There have been endless debates on the inaction of the part of the governments to provide suitable opportunities to the highly talented lot of the society.
Brain drain is largely a result of the failure of the system of the home country to provide facilities or opportunities corresponding to a person’s qualifications and abilities. People mostly emigrate in search of more invigorating and resourceful environments that also offer a better quality of life. For more developed nations such as Canada, one reasons for brain drain includes issues such as higher taxes.
The former Soviet Union and today's Russia continues to experience a brain drain in many areas. New Zealand has also experienced somewhat of a brain drain for a variety of reasons, and many of the youth in that nation are lured to neighbouring Australia where industries are better developed and economic opportunities are in higher supply. Many Canadians also immigrate to the United States for better opportunities. However this brain drain in developed nations may be offset by ‘brain gain’ as though well-skilled may leave the country in search of greener pastures, however many well-qualified immigrants offset this disadvantage.
The developing countries and the under developed nations are the biggest losers of the brain drain. South East Asia has been bearing the brunt of this phenomenon. India has been a witness to this phenomenon since independence. There are large Indian Diasporas spread throughout the world in developing nations. Regions having political instability and turbulences have seen large-scale brain drain. Iraq is said by some to be presently undergoing a brain drain due to its political instability. We have seen a large number of Afghan, Bangladeshi, Nepali and Sri Lankan people settle in the first world countries.
According to the Human Development Report 2001 by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the average total cost for providing a professional University education in India comes to about $ 15,000 - $ 20,000, which means that India is losing about $ 2 billion every year on this account. The Government of India heavily subsidizes higher education; however professionals emerging out of these institutes leave for foreign lands. The migration of skilled individuals from developing countries has traditionally being considered to be costly for the sending country due to lost investments in education.
The following editorial in the USA Today by Allan Webber on 23rd February 2004 however reveals the changing situation in today’s world:
“Until recently, if Americans heard the words ‘brain drain’, they knew clearly what that meant: Bright, talented scientists, engineers and other techies from all over the world were migrating to the United States. They were drawn here by the world's best universities, the most dynamic companies, the freest economic and social environment and the highest standard of living. Today, while many of these conditions still apply, Americans are starting to hear a new term: ‘reverse brain drain’."
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain an American visa by the day and this is contributing to the reverse brain drain as well as fewer talented people are able to enter the United States.
In such a situation, it is becoming important to counter this phenomenon. China’s official policy and industry incentives are friendly to those expatriates who want to return. The Chinese have encouraged their best to acquire valuable expertise abroad—and then wooed them back to set up businesses or work in top government posts. They have succeeded in creating a professionally stimulating environment to attract students back Returnees have founded most of the country’s high-tech companies.
- Posts : 71
Join date : 2008-03-06
Age : 28
Location : ait izza - taroudant
Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum